The attack occurred at Indiana State Prison in Michigan City around 2:40 p.m., the agency said in a news release.
Tymetri Campbell, 38, faces several preliminary charges including murder, the state police said.
Officials said the officers were attacked in a common area.
The officers were transported to St. Anthony’s Hospital in Michigan City, where one was pronounced dead and the second was listed in serious condition. They were not immediately identified.
Detectives from the Indiana State Police Lowell Post were assisting with the investigation at the prison 34 miles west of South Bend.
Campbell is serving a 130-year sentence after pleading guilty to three murders in a 2002 shooting, WISH-TV reported. In a 2007 appeal, he apologized for “being there” at the time of the deaths but said he didn’t kill anyone.